ARE WE ALONE? SOME
The latest research into the possibility of contacting advanced alien civilizations has concluded that finding traces of other civilizations may be much more difficult than first thought.
A paper headed by Professor Michael Garrett of the University of Leiden has found that attempting to detect waste energy through the use of mid-infrared (MIR) emission in galaxies with higher than usual emissions, is much more difficult than initially thought.
Dr. Jason Wright of Penn University put together a list of some 100,000 candidate galaxies that had higher than usual waste energy emissions, which Garrett and his team then studied. Unfortunately, all those studied by Garrett and his team were found to have high energy waste emissions through natural phenomena.
"the original research at Penn State has already told us that such systems are very rare, but the new analysis suggests that this is probably an understatement and that advanced Kardashev Type III civilizations basically don't exist in the local Universe. In my view, it means we can all sleep safely in our beds tonight - an alien invasion doesn't seem at all likely!".
The study took place based on the Kardashev scale, which measures the level of technology a civilization has achieved based on the amount of energy it can generate. Currently, humans are a type 0 civilization.
A more detailed breakdown of the Kardashev scale: https://futurism.com/the-kardashev-scale-type-i-ii-iii-iv-v-civilization/
Type I civilization are those capable or harnessing and storing the power of their parent star on their own planet. Something that humans are conceivably not too far away from achieving.
Type II civilizations can harness the entire energy of their parent star, usually in models through the use of Dyson spheres, and type III are capable of controlling energy in their entire host galaxy.
It is the theoretical type III civilizations that most alien researchers are looking for as it is assumed that their sheer size and energy output would make them the easiest to find. This is done through measuring galaxies for signs of excess heat waste, which it is assumed that all civilizations would produce.
One potential issue with the process currently used however is that sufficiently advanced civilizations may not produce heat waste at all, or at least not enough for other species to detect. If this is the case then advanced civilizations would need to be detected through other as yet unknown means. There are also limitations with the model itself, several revisions and alternative models have been proposed several times since the development of Kardashev's scale in 1964.
The original research: https://www.astron.nl/about-astron/press-public/news/werp/good-night-sleep-tight-advanced-alien-civilisations-rare-or-abse
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